Melioidosis is a potentially fatal infectious disease caused by the environmental bacterium, Burkholderia pseudomallei. Melioidosis is endemic in many tropical countries. The disease has very few specific clinical manifestations, and B. pseudomallei is intrinsically resistant to many commonly used antimicrobials. The mortality of patients treated inappropriately could be up to 90%.
Scrub typhus is an acute febrile illness caused by the bacterium Orientia tsutsugamushi. The bacterium is transmitted by mites from the genus Leptotrombidium. Scrub typhus lacks differentiating clinical features, making it difficult to diagnose without sophisticated laboratory tests. If not treated, the median mortality has been reported to be 6% and may reach up to 70%.